————————————————————————————————————————————————————-here’s your ayahuasca recipe for brewing the mimosa, taken from the dmt nexus, https://www.dmt-nexus.me/forum/

How to brew Ayahuasca, recommended use with experienced practitioner or in medical/research environment:


Vine:

-There are many different colors of vine available: white, yellow, cielo, black, red, trueno, and more. There are subtle differences between varities. Yellow is often recommended for beginners; this does not mean it is WEAKER in any way; IMHE, this vine seems to have a “balanced” profile of qualities.
-Dosage: Impossible to speculate. Realistically, this could mean anywhere between 50~150g, or possibly more, depending on type of vine and the person. It usually takes a few tries for people to “break through” and find a sweet spot with Aya. My personal recommendation is to take a few whacks at preparing a Caapi-only brew, learning how much vine is necessarily for a psychedelic (the vine alone IS psychedelic!!) experience. Start lower, work up in dosage. Systematically determining the quality of materials relative to the metabolism of the body is preferable to roulette—or a “failed experience.” It takes a lot of time and effort to make a brew, so it’s best not to rush and waste precious efforts.
-Whole, shredded, powdered, extracts? I personally like working with whole vine: there is more time to speak intentions to the vine and put my energy into the sacrament. When whole vine was unavailable, I have worked with shredded, with no noticeable difference. Some people say surface area impacts the rate of oxidation, and therefore degradation, of materials. Perhaps some people also live in places where they do not have the luxury of hammering the vine. These are just my thoughts. (I’m a fan of whole foods. Razz ) The vine DOES reward the extra effort…

Admixtures:

-Chacruna (Psychotria Viridis): The most traditional of all Ayahuasca admixture plants. Contains nn-dmt.
-Brewing tips: Traditionally, the vine and Chacruna are placed into a pot, in alternating layers. GENERALLY, the ratio of vine:Chacruna is 1:1.
-Practical notes: The alkaloid content of this plant varies widely over the course of a day, which makes harvesting somewhat tricky; for this reason, purchasing Chacruna over the internet is hit or miss. Some report Hawaiian as being stronger. The DMT content of Chacruna is lower than most other admixture plants, meaning a higher volume of plant must be brewed.
-Experiential notes: Chacruna is a POWERFUL catalyst of transformation. Visions have included symbols of ancient language, intense presence of the forest, complete ego-death (precluded by insanity), and actual conversations with plants. A very “green” energy.

-Chaliponga (Diploptys Cabrarena): Another traditional admixture plant. Contains 5-Meo-dmt and nn-dmt.
-Brewing tips: Can be brewed together with or separately from Caapi (but brewing separately will allow one to adjust vine:leaf ratios). Chaliponga is much more potent than Chacruna, gram for gram; some people are completely overpowered by 5g. Again, potency varies widely; IMHO, starting around 2g and slowly increasing would be wise.
-Notes of interest: Some have reported success quidding Chaliponga.
-Experiential notes: Chaliponga is “darker” and “archetypal” in flavor. A powerful spirit, with jungle, shamanic, and occult overtones.

-Mimosa (Mimosa Hostilis): A traditional entheogen, un-traditionally used in Ayahuasca brews for its nn-dmt. There are also loads of other “mysterious jungle alkaloids” that are presently not fully understood…
-Warning #1: Mimosa *MUST* be brewed separately from the vine!! It is normal for a sediment to drop out of any brewed plant material after 24 hours or so; in the case of vine and leaves, the sediment may be consumed, but NOT in the case of Mimosa. It can be prepared in identical manner to the vine, only in a separate pot. After decanting for 24 hours, a dark sludge should fall out; the sludge is responsible for most of the ill feelings and bad experiences related to Mimosa. Decant, filter through pantyhose/cheesecloth, and pour into a sterilized jar. Do not drink the sludge!
-Warning #2: Potent and well-prepared MHRB is extremely unforgiving when it comes to dosing improperly. There are some absolutely insane reports on the web about people taking 8g, or even 25g. Prepared identically to Caapi, Mimosa can become active at .5g, and I would never, ever recommend a dose beyond 3g without EXTENSIVE personal experimentation and perfection of brewing techniques. Very little goes a long way. Less is more, and too much light will bring panic. People have used the word “leash” with this plant.
-Experiential notes: The spirit of Mimosa is extremely vocal about global justice issues. Lots of blues, greens, and reds, in color. No “rainforest presence,” as with leaves and vine. When approached in appropriate doses, great mysteries of body, birth, and being are readily explored. Those familiar with jungle spice will find themselves very close to home.

~*…and finally, the recipe!*~

*Due to profound cook times, I like to prepare enough for several journeys at once.
*Energy is everything. Do not abandon the brew while cooking to do something else. Energy in = energy out.
*Some freeze materials overnight before cooking, and say this increases potency, for the sake of breaking down cell walls to release actives.

*Setting up: Smudge the kitchen, speak intentions, give thanks. Open a dialogue with the spirit of Ayahuasca, whatever is in the heart. Stay focused on why one has decided to spend 12+ hours at the stove. Pay attention to all the little details: swirls of steam, crackles and hisses from the pot, the smell of the vine. What is seen in the pot? (5 hours later) NOW what is seen in the pot?

*Always cook with stainless steel. Put materials in an appropriate pots. (I like to cook my admixtures separately; drinking them separately, vine first, light ~20 minutes later, seems most efficient.)
*Cover materials with acidified water: pH of 4 is rumored to be acceptable. I prefer 2.5~3.
*How to acidify: NEVER USE LEMON!! It tastes HORRENDOUS!! Some use phosphoric acid, or Vitamin C crystals (I have no recipe/method for these). I worked with vinegar for a long time; white distilled vinegar leaves the least amount of taste (ACV tastes far worse). One generous tablespoon of vinegar per liter of water is plenty acidic. Smile I have found using less vinegar than this results in weaker brews.
*Type of water: distilled or reverse osmosis works best. This water is already slightly acidic, and there are no minerals (or disgusting tap additives) that will concentrate when the brew is reduced.
*I have recently started using a water filter that uses electrolysis to clean the water and digitally adjust pH (KYK/KanGen/Jupiter/etc.). It works just as well as vinegar, but tastes sooo much better. :O
*It is impossible to say how much water is necessary for a brew. Bring the water to a boil, and then reduce heat to keep the water just above the threshold of boiling. Diameter of pots used will definitely effect rate of evaporation. As materials are exposed, add enough water just to keep them covered. Boil strategically; when nearing the end of each wash, obviously, let the water cook down a little further than usual.
*Washes: Do three boils of three hours. If work keeps a person from doing one long cook, this is a convenient way to “break up” the cooking.
*After the initial three hours of boiling, carefully pour off all the brewed water into a new pot. Cover the new pot with an old cotton TEA-shirt to serve as a filter (before pouring into it, of course Razz ).
*Cover cooked materials with fresh acidified water, and cook again for three hours. Filter into a separate pot.
*Do this one more time, cooking for a total of nine hours. IMHE, cooking for less than nine negatively impacts brew potency. Cooking beyond 12 makes brew slightly more tannic, but does not increase potency noticably.
*Finally, combine all three filtered washes, and reduce.
*Reduction requires UTMOST and CONSTANT attention. It takes next to nothing for pots to boil over and all 9 hours to spill across the stove, and dry instantly, only in the pattern of thousands of eyeballs to mock the brewer’s carelessness.
*Ideally, one will eventually combine pots, and switch to using smaller pots, gradually reducing the heat, until only a few ounces are left. The taste is the taste of death; the less material there is to drink, probably, the better.
*Also, the further one reduces, the less likely mold or fermentation is to occur.
*Store in sterilized glass jars. Reduced brew can be stored for several months in the fridge, and be frozen indefinitely.
*Pots and pans may look dirty as hell after the reductions phase; this is nothing a bit of organic dish soap and steel wool can’t handle. Smile
*Notes on acidifying: there are many cases in which acid is not added to an Ayahuasca brew (traditional Amazonian preparation, Santo Daime, and among others on the net). Some people say this does not impact the efficacy of the brew; in my personal experience, however, it has. There are too many variables at hand to quickly determine what the cause of this may be at the present time. Adding acid will DEFINITELY turn the taste of the brew for the worse (brewer beware, this is not a joke); feel free to consider all methods, and attempt what sounds best to you. If you do have any experiences to add to this subject, please do share them here with everyone! In my personal experiences, tested multiple times, 200g+ of non-acidified water brings only minimal effects, vs. < half the identical materials brewed the same way WITH vinegar would yield stronger results—in MY experience, again, which is not the same as some others’ and a subject worthy of much investigation!! There are things to consider: freshness of materials used, source water, cook times, and possibly much more.

—————————————————————————————————————————————
(for the syrian rue/harmaline seeds)

So I simmered the 15g mimosa powder a total of 6-7 hours in destilled water with some vinegar (about a tablespoon per 600 ml of water) on a very low setting (just enough to see some tiny bubbles forming like a bit of foam on the sides as I was scared to destroy alkaloids). I did three washes in total and combined the water at the end and reduced it to two shot glasses. I simmered a little over 5 grams of Syrian r. seeds, which I had put in the blender before, twice for about half an hour with destilled water and a bit of vinegar. 

————————————————————————————————————————————————————-here’s your ayahuasca recipe for brewing the mimosa, taken from the dmt nexus, https://www.dmt-nexus.me/forum/

How to brew Ayahuasca, recommended use with experienced practitioner or in medical/research environment:

Vine:

-There are many different colors of vine available: white, yellow, cielo, black, red, trueno, and more. There are subtle differences between varities. Yellow is often recommended for beginners; this does not mean it is WEAKER in any way; IMHE, this vine seems to have a “balanced” profile of qualities.

-Dosage: Impossible to speculate. Realistically, this could mean anywhere between 50~150g, or possibly more, depending on type of vine and the person. It usually takes a few tries for people to “break through” and find a sweet spot with Aya. My personal recommendation is to take a few whacks at preparing a Caapi-only brew, learning how much vine is necessarily for a psychedelic (the vine alone IS psychedelic!!) experience. Start lower, work up in dosage. Systematically determining the quality of materials relative to the metabolism of the body is preferable to roulette—or a “failed experience.” It takes a lot of time and effort to make a brew, so it’s best not to rush and waste precious efforts.

-Whole, shredded, powdered, extracts? I personally like working with whole vine: there is more time to speak intentions to the vine and put my energy into the sacrament. When whole vine was unavailable, I have worked with shredded, with no noticeable difference. Some people say surface area impacts the rate of oxidation, and therefore degradation, of materials. Perhaps some people also live in places where they do not have the luxury of hammering the vine. These are just my thoughts. (I’m a fan of whole foods. Razz ) The vine DOES reward the extra effort…

Admixtures:

-Chacruna (Psychotria Viridis): The most traditional of all Ayahuasca admixture plants. Contains nn-dmt.

-Brewing tips: Traditionally, the vine and Chacruna are placed into a pot, in alternating layers. GENERALLY, the ratio of vine:Chacruna is 1:1.

-Practical notes: The alkaloid content of this plant varies widely over the course of a day, which makes harvesting somewhat tricky; for this reason, purchasing Chacruna over the internet is hit or miss. Some report Hawaiian as being stronger. The DMT content of Chacruna is lower than most other admixture plants, meaning a higher volume of plant must be brewed.

-Experiential notes: Chacruna is a POWERFUL catalyst of transformation. Visions have included symbols of ancient language, intense presence of the forest, complete ego-death (precluded by insanity), and actual conversations with plants. A very “green” energy.

-Chaliponga (Diploptys Cabrarena): Another traditional admixture plant. Contains 5-Meo-dmt and nn-dmt.

-Brewing tips: Can be brewed together with or separately from Caapi (but brewing separately will allow one to adjust vine:leaf ratios). Chaliponga is much more potent than Chacruna, gram for gram; some people are completely overpowered by 5g. Again, potency varies widely; IMHO, starting around 2g and slowly increasing would be wise.

-Notes of interest: Some have reported success quidding Chaliponga.

-Experiential notes: Chaliponga is “darker” and “archetypal” in flavor. A powerful spirit, with jungle, shamanic, and occult overtones.

-Mimosa (Mimosa Hostilis): A traditional entheogen, un-traditionally used in Ayahuasca brews for its nn-dmt. There are also loads of other “mysterious jungle alkaloids” that are presently not fully understood…

-Warning #1: Mimosa *MUST* be brewed separately from the vine!! It is normal for a sediment to drop out of any brewed plant material after 24 hours or so; in the case of vine and leaves, the sediment may be consumed, but NOT in the case of Mimosa. It can be prepared in identical manner to the vine, only in a separate pot. After decanting for 24 hours, a dark sludge should fall out; the sludge is responsible for most of the ill feelings and bad experiences related to Mimosa. Decant, filter through pantyhose/cheesecloth, and pour into a sterilized jar. Do not drink the sludge!

-Warning #2: Potent and well-prepared MHRB is extremely unforgiving when it comes to dosing improperly. There are some absolutely insane reports on the web about people taking 8g, or even 25g. Prepared identically to Caapi, Mimosa can become active at .5g, and I would never, ever recommend a dose beyond 3g without EXTENSIVE personal experimentation and perfection of brewing techniques. Very little goes a long way. Less is more, and too much light will bring panic. People have used the word “leash” with this plant.

-Experiential notes: The spirit of Mimosa is extremely vocal about global justice issues. Lots of blues, greens, and reds, in color. No “rainforest presence,” as with leaves and vine. When approached in appropriate doses, great mysteries of body, birth, and being are readily explored. Those familiar with jungle spice will find themselves very close to home.

~*…and finally, the recipe!*~

*Due to profound cook times, I like to prepare enough for several journeys at once.

*Energy is everything. Do not abandon the brew while cooking to do something else. Energy in = energy out.

*Some freeze materials overnight before cooking, and say this increases potency, for the sake of breaking down cell walls to release actives.

*Setting up: Smudge the kitchen, speak intentions, give thanks. Open a dialogue with the spirit of Ayahuasca, whatever is in the heart. Stay focused on why one has decided to spend 12+ hours at the stove. Pay attention to all the little details: swirls of steam, crackles and hisses from the pot, the smell of the vine. What is seen in the pot? (5 hours later) NOW what is seen in the pot?

*Always cook with stainless steel. Put materials in an appropriate pots. (I like to cook my admixtures separately; drinking them separately, vine first, light ~20 minutes later, seems most efficient.)

*Cover materials with acidified water: pH of 4 is rumored to be acceptable. I prefer 2.5~3.

*How to acidify: NEVER USE LEMON!! It tastes HORRENDOUS!! Some use phosphoric acid, or Vitamin C crystals (I have no recipe/method for these). I worked with vinegar for a long time; white distilled vinegar leaves the least amount of taste (ACV tastes far worse). One generous tablespoon of vinegar per liter of water is plenty acidic. Smile I have found using less vinegar than this results in weaker brews.

*Type of water: distilled or reverse osmosis works best. This water is already slightly acidic, and there are no minerals (or disgusting tap additives) that will concentrate when the brew is reduced.

*I have recently started using a water filter that uses electrolysis to clean the water and digitally adjust pH (KYK/KanGen/Jupiter/etc.). It works just as well as vinegar, but tastes sooo much better. :O

*It is impossible to say how much water is necessary for a brew. Bring the water to a boil, and then reduce heat to keep the water just above the threshold of boiling. Diameter of pots used will definitely effect rate of evaporation. As materials are exposed, add enough water just to keep them covered. Boil strategically; when nearing the end of each wash, obviously, let the water cook down a little further than usual.

*Washes: Do three boils of three hours. If work keeps a person from doing one long cook, this is a convenient way to “break up” the cooking.

*After the initial three hours of boiling, carefully pour off all the brewed water into a new pot. Cover the new pot with an old cotton TEA-shirt to serve as a filter (before pouring into it, of course Razz ).

*Cover cooked materials with fresh acidified water, and cook again for three hours. Filter into a separate pot.

*Do this one more time, cooking for a total of nine hours. IMHE, cooking for less than nine negatively impacts brew potency. Cooking beyond 12 makes brew slightly more tannic, but does not increase potency noticably.

*Finally, combine all three filtered washes, and reduce.

*Reduction requires UTMOST and CONSTANT attention. It takes next to nothing for pots to boil over and all 9 hours to spill across the stove, and dry instantly, only in the pattern of thousands of eyeballs to mock the brewer’s carelessness.

*Ideally, one will eventually combine pots, and switch to using smaller pots, gradually reducing the heat, until only a few ounces are left. The taste is the taste of death; the less material there is to drink, probably, the better.

*Also, the further one reduces, the less likely mold or fermentation is to occur.

*Store in sterilized glass jars. Reduced brew can be stored for several months in the fridge, and be frozen indefinitely.

*Pots and pans may look dirty as hell after the reductions phase; this is nothing a bit of organic dish soap and steel wool can’t handle. Smile

*Notes on acidifying: there are many cases in which acid is not added to an Ayahuasca brew (traditional Amazonian preparation, Santo Daime, and among others on the net). Some people say this does not impact the efficacy of the brew; in my personal experience, however, it has. There are too many variables at hand to quickly determine what the cause of this may be at the present time. Adding acid will DEFINITELY turn the taste of the brew for the worse (brewer beware, this is not a joke); feel free to consider all methods, and attempt what sounds best to you. If you do have any experiences to add to this subject, please do share them here with everyone! In my personal experiences, tested multiple times, 200g+ of non-acidified water brings only minimal effects, vs. < half the identical materials brewed the same way WITH vinegar would yield stronger results—in MY experience, again, which is not the same as some others’ and a subject worthy of much investigation!! There are things to consider: freshness of materials used, source water, cook times, and possibly much more.

—————————————————————————————————————————————

(for the syrian rue/harmaline seeds)

So I simmered the 15g mimosa powder a total of 6-7 hours in destilled water with some vinegar (about a tablespoon per 600 ml of water) on a very low setting (just enough to see some tiny bubbles forming like a bit of foam on the sides as I was scared to destroy alkaloids). I did three washes in total and combined the water at the end and reduced it to two shot glasses. I simmered a little over 5 grams of Syrian r. seeds, which I had put in the blender before, twice for about half an hour with destilled water and a bit of vinegar. 

What the world needs now is love sweet love, it’s the only thing that there’s just too little of.

Lord we don’t need another mountain, there are mountains and hillsides enough to climb…there are oceans and rivers enough to cross, enough to last until the end of time.

What the world needs now is love sweet love…

No, not just for some, but just for every, every, everyone.

http://jn.physiology.org/content/102/2/1241.full.pdf+html

Spectral Properties of Induced and Evoked Gamma Oscillations in Human Early Visual Cortex to Moving and Stationary Stimuli
J. B. Swettenham, 
S. D. Muthukumaraswamy, and 
K. D. Singh
Submitted 18 September 2008. 
Accepted in final form7 June 2009.


(Abstract)

In two experiments, magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to investigate the effects of motion on gamma oscillations in human early visual cortex. When presented centrally, but not peripherally, stationary and moving gratings elicited several evoked and induced response components in early visual cortex. Time-frequency analysis revealed two nonphase locked gamma power increases—an initial, rapidly adapting response and one sustained throughout stimulus presentation and varying in frequency across observers from 28 to 64&#160;Hz. Stimulus motion raised the sustained gamma oscillation frequency by a mean of ∼10&#160;Hz. The largest motion-induced frequency increases were in those observers with the lowest gamma response frequencies for stationary stimuli, suggesting a possible saturation mechanism. Moderate gamma amplitude increases to moving versus stationary stimuli were also observed but were not correlated with the magnitude of the frequency increase. At the same site in visual cortex, sustained alpha/beta power reductions and an onset evoked response were observed, but these effects did not change significantly with the presence of motion and did not correlate with the magnitude of gamma power changes. These findings suggest that early visual areas encode moving and stationary percepts via activity at higher and lower gamma frequencies, respectively.

http://jn.physiology.org/content/102/2/1241.full.pdf+html

Spectral Properties of Induced and Evoked Gamma Oscillations in Human Early Visual Cortex to Moving and Stationary Stimuli

  1. J. B. Swettenham
  2. S. D. Muthukumaraswamy, and 
  3. K. D. Singh
  • Submitted 18 September 2008. 
  • Accepted in final form7 June 2009.

(Abstract)

In two experiments, magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to investigate the effects of motion on gamma oscillations in human early visual cortex. When presented centrally, but not peripherally, stationary and moving gratings elicited several evoked and induced response components in early visual cortex. Time-frequency analysis revealed two nonphase locked gamma power increases—an initial, rapidly adapting response and one sustained throughout stimulus presentation and varying in frequency across observers from 28 to 64 Hz. Stimulus motion raised the sustained gamma oscillation frequency by a mean of ∼10 Hz. The largest motion-induced frequency increases were in those observers with the lowest gamma response frequencies for stationary stimuli, suggesting a possible saturation mechanism. Moderate gamma amplitude increases to moving versus stationary stimuli were also observed but were not correlated with the magnitude of the frequency increase. At the same site in visual cortex, sustained alpha/beta power reductions and an onset evoked response were observed, but these effects did not change significantly with the presence of motion and did not correlate with the magnitude of gamma power changes. These findings suggest that early visual areas encode moving and stationary percepts via activity at higher and lower gamma frequencies, respectively.

Broadband cortical desynchronization underlies the human psychedelic state.
Muthukumaraswamy SD, Carhart-Harris RL, Moran RJ, Brookes MJ, Williams TM, Errtizoe D, Sessa B, Papadopoulos A,Bolstridge M, Singh KD, Feilding A, Friston KJ, Nutt DJ.

Source
Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF119BJ, United Kingdom, Imperial College London, Centre for Neuropsychopharmacology, Division of Brain Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, London W12 ONN, United Kingdom, Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom, Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, Nottingham University, Nottingham NG7&#160;2RD, United Kingdom, Academic Unit of Psychiatry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8&#160;2BN, United Kingdom, The Beckley Foundation, Beckley Park, Oxford OX3&#160;9SY, United Kingdom, and Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, and Bradley Department of Electrical &amp; Computer Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Roanoke, Virginia 24016.

(Abstract) 
Psychedelic drugs produce profound changes in consciousness, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms for this remain unclear. Spontaneous and induced oscillatory activity was recorded in healthy human participants with magnetoencephalography after intravenous infusion of psilocybin—prodrug of the nonselective serotonin 2A receptor agonist and classic psychedelic psilocin. Psilocybin reduced spontaneous cortical oscillatory power from 1 to 50&#160;Hz in posterior association cortices, and from 8 to 100&#160;Hz in frontal association cortices. Large decreases in oscillatory power were seen in areas of the default-mode network. Independent component analysis was used to identify a number of resting-state networks, and activity in these was similarly decreased after psilocybin. Psilocybin had no effect on low-level visually induced and motor-induced gamma-band oscillations, suggesting that some basic elements of oscillatory brain activity are relatively preserved during the psychedelic experience. Dynamic causal modeling revealed that posterior cingulate cortex desynchronization can be explained by increased excitability of deep-layer pyramidal neurons, which are known to be rich in 5-HT2A receptors. These findings suggest that the subjective effects of psychedelics result from a desynchronization of ongoing oscillatory rhythms in the cortex, likely triggered by 5-HT2A receptor-mediated excitation of deep pyramidal cells.

Broadband cortical desynchronization underlies the human psychedelic state.

Source

Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF119BJ, United Kingdom, Imperial College London, Centre for Neuropsychopharmacology, Division of Brain Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, London W12 ONN, United Kingdom, Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom, Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, Nottingham University, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom, Academic Unit of Psychiatry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2BN, United Kingdom, The Beckley Foundation, Beckley Park, Oxford OX3 9SY, United Kingdom, and Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, and Bradley Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Roanoke, Virginia 24016.

(Abstract)

Psychedelic drugs produce profound changes in consciousness, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms for this remain unclear. Spontaneous and induced oscillatory activity was recorded in healthy human participants with magnetoencephalography after intravenous infusion of psilocybin—prodrug of the nonselective serotonin 2A receptor agonist and classic psychedelic psilocin. Psilocybin reduced spontaneous cortical oscillatory power from 1 to 50 Hz in posterior association cortices, and from 8 to 100 Hz in frontal association cortices. Large decreases in oscillatory power were seen in areas of the default-mode network. Independent component analysis was used to identify a number of resting-state networks, and activity in these was similarly decreased after psilocybin. Psilocybin had no effect on low-level visually induced and motor-induced gamma-band oscillations, suggesting that some basic elements of oscillatory brain activity are relatively preserved during the psychedelic experience. Dynamic causal modeling revealed that posterior cingulate cortex desynchronization can be explained by increased excitability of deep-layer pyramidal neurons, which are known to be rich in 5-HT2A receptors. These findings suggest that the subjective effects of psychedelics result from a desynchronization of ongoing oscillatory rhythms in the cortex, likely triggered by 5-HT2A receptor-mediated excitation of deep pyramidal cells.